Suggested learning themes for high school clusters in Australia;

Curriculum codes:

ACSSU190 -     Physical Sciences - Energy Conservation - Energy conservation in a system can be explained by describing energy transfers and transformations 
ACSSU229 -     Physical Sciences - Forces and Motion - The motion of objects can be described and predicted using the laws of physics 
ACSSU219 -     Physical Sciences - Alternative Energies - Energy from a variety of sources can be used to generate electricity 
ACSSU117 -     Physical Sciences - Forces and Machines - Change to an objectís motion is caused by unbalanced forces acting on the object
ACSSU155 -     Physical Sciences - Energy Forms - Energy appears in different forms including movement (kinetic energy), heat and potential energy, and causes change within systems 
ACSSU182 -     Physical Sciences - Energy Transfer - Forms of energy can be transferred in a variety of ways through different mediums


Suggested themes: - Science/Technology syllabuses

1./ We have used the  inefficient polluting & combustive processes involving fossil fuels for decades (coal ,gases, petrol, diesel,....). The chemical reactions involved in combustion are exothermic where immense heat and light are generated. The heat energy associated with fossil fuel combustion is large. The chemical reason being the high bond energy associated with carbon bonds as with hydro-carbon fossil fuels. The large amounts of heat energy associated with hydro-carbon fuels thus, allowed for an easy choice by car engine and power station makers many decades ago. Whilst the petrol and diesel car engines were in fact inefficient , the average fuel tank on a car could hold sufficient energy thanks to the chemistry of carbon, that these cars could do 400 miles on a tank, whilst being only 12-15% efficient.

1.5/ Compare a lead acid battery and  a PEM fuel cell. Students need a good understanding in electro-chemistry or their understanding of atoms and molecules will be incomplete. Batteries store electrical energy in the form of ions, and ions are large compared to electrons. By example computer technology has developed over thirty(30) years as the electron allows this to happen due to its minute size. Batteries on the other hand have limitations, and lithium - sulfur  /oxygen for the future are not certain. Batteries like lithium could be great for energy storage as PV solar panels become much cheaper towards yr 2020, but in the transport sector if you cannot refuel in 3-5 minutes you don't have a transport technology. Millions of heavy vehicles like trucks and in agriculture cannot use batteries.

2./ Fuel cells do not combust their fuel when generating electricity at over 50% efficiency.  BENEFITS   Applications of fuel cells in society is a large one.  APPLICATIONS                                 

3a./In year 2013, BMW , Toyota, Renault, Nissan, Ford, Daimler, GM & Honda all formed alliances to develop a cheap & affordable fuel cell engine system for the mass market before years 2017/2020. This now sends a strong message to the public and private sectors throughout the world.

3b./  PV panels have dropped by 80% in cost since year 2008.With solar PV panels becoming cheaper( $1/watt or less installed), this allows many small owners to be power generators as in de-centralised power generation . New materials are being tested successfully to replace silicon in PV cells.

4./ Because battery electric cars take longer than 3-5 minutes to fill up, are they really transport vehicles in the true sense?

5./ Battery electric cars store electrical energy, and can take up to several hours to charge with new battery technology. If there were to be millions of battery electric cars allowed, where would all the extra electricity come from, and should it be all or part renewable electricity-discuss ?

6./ Practical and realistic descriptions for terms like "sustainability" and "energy"; Keeping it real is important as philosophical answers are for university professors.

7./ It's actually time most high schools in Australia begin to purchase affordable learning tools like simple fuel cells and solar , wind integrated packages.

8./ Senior science students must make this link  Basic fuel cell science

9./ Model de-centralised hybrid power supply systems (DHPSS).

10./ Hydrogen is an energy carrier like electricity.

 Background on technology education  syllabus