Integrated    stationary    APPLICATIONS    involving     fuel    cells :


add a Wind turbine, solar panel/s,.....and energy storage....then "Smart"   switch  between all    - .


Year 2002 -simple model.

In Year 2007/8 a larger model was built

Micro-power-grids and solar fuels-2014

In an educational sense is the model power supply system involving different electricity power supplies for dwellings or industry. Zero carbon energy transformation in a "smart" way means, that all renewable electricity generators transform such energy to be stored, in either batteries (latest lithium ion tech.) (electrical energy) or as hydrogen (chemical energy). A high performance lithium ion battery designed for home or industrial usage, would generate electricity back to the system or grid at strategic times. Hydrogen can be used this way as well as has been used in several projects involving wind turbines, an electrolyser, hydrogen storage and fuel cell for electricity generation at strategic times.

Solar energy peaks during midday lets say and wind turbines continue into the night but, most consumer demand for electricity happens between 4pm and 7pm.To be able to save renewable electricity somehow, and then bring it back strategically at peak times, allows for far less peaking power plant capital investments. The peaks in demand must of course be met, but storing electricity and returning it at peak times would save lots of money considering how much a MW/h costs at peak times. Over time all future systems of power generation will be of the integrated micro-grid variety.

Computer software programs will interpret input variables from the electrical power demand side of the real life models, and issue commands via the program to supply power accordingly to meet the electrical demand imperative. The controller to the computer program/s will thus become most valuable over time, for they will be responsible for real systems within ~10-15 years.

Australian schools interested in following this pathway in course and program development, please contact the FCIA at



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