Applications of fuel cells:
Many thanks to Fuel Cells 2000
Fuel cells can become an alternative to batteries and internal combustion engines. If we think of all the applications for batteries and internal combustion engines, most of these applications are fuel cell applications as well. Fuel cells are currently able to power buses, automobiles, boats, trains, planes, scooters, forklifts, even bicycles. There are fuel cell-powered vending machines, vacuum cleaners and highway road signs. There are miniature fuel cells for cellular phones, laptop computers and portable electronics. Hospitals, credit card centers, police stations, and banks are all using fuel cells to provide power to their facilities. Wastewater treatment plants and landfills are using fuel cells to convert the methane gas they produce into electricity. Telecommunications companies are installing fuel cells at cell phone, radio and 911 towers. The possibilities are truly endless since the unique characteristics of fuel cells also open new applications that batteries or internal combustion engines so far could not.
MICRO-POWER: Fuel cells will change the telecommuting world, powering cellular phones, laptops and palm pilots hours longer than batteries. Companies have already demonstrated fuel cells that can power cell phones for 30 days with out recharging and laptops for 20 hours. Other applications for micro fuel cells include pagers, video recorders, portable power tools, and low power remote devices such as hearing aids, smoke detectors, burglar alarms, hotel locks and meter readers
PORTABLE POWER: Fuel cells can provide power where no electric grid is
available, plus they are quiet, so using one instead of a loud, polluting
generator at a campsite would not only save emissions, but it won't disturb
nature, or your camping neighbors. Portable fuel cells are also being used in
emergency backup power situations and military applications. They are much
lighter than batteries and last a lot longer.
CARS: All the major automotive manufacturers have a fuel cell vehicle either in development or in testing right now, and several have begun leasing and testing in larger quantities. This is has been a traditionally challenging application given the quantities of hydrogen required, and infrastructure needed to supply all users. Horizon currently supports a unique concept that requires a minimal amount of hydrogen easily serviced by existing industrial gas infrastructure, and 10 to 15 times less fuel cell for a car able to achieve 300 mile per gallon energy equivalent.
BUSES: Over the last four years, more than 50 fuel cell buses have been demonstrated in North and South America, Europe, Asia and Australia. Fuel cells are highly efficient, so even if the hydrogen is produced from fossil fuels, fuel cell buses can reduce transit agencies' CO2 emissions. And emissions are truly zero if the hydrogen is produced from renewable electricity, which greatly improves local air quality. Because the fuel cell system is so much quieter than a diesel engine, fuel cell buses significantly reduce noise pollution as well. For a comprehensive chart on fuel cell buses.
SCOOTERS & BICYCLES: In spite of their small size, many scooters are pollution powerhouses. Gas-powered scooters, especially those with two-stroke engines, produce tailpipe emissions at a rate disproportionate to their small size. These two-stroke scooters produce almost as much particulate matter and significantly more hydrocarbons and carbon monoxide as a heavy diesel truck. Fuel cell scooters running on hydrogen will eliminate emissions - in India and Asia where many of the population use them.
FORKLIFTS & MATERIAL HANDLING: Besides reducing emissions, fuel cell
forklifts have potential to effectively lower total logistics cost since they
require minimal refilling and significantly less maintenance than electric
forklifts, whose batteries must be periodically charged, refilled with water,
and replaced. Due to the frequent starting and stopping during use, electric
forklifts also experience numerous interruptions in current input and output -
fuel cells ensure constant power delivery and performance, eliminating the
reduction in voltage output that occurs as batteries discharge.
AUXILIARY POWER UNITS (APUs): Today's heavy-duty trucks are equipped with a large number of electrical appliances-from heaters and air conditioners to computers, televisions, stereos, even refrigerators and microwaves. To power these devices while the truck is parked, drivers often must idle the engine. In the US it is estimated that the annual fuel and maintenance costs of idling a heavy-duty truck at over $1,800 and that using fuel cell APUs in Class 8 trucks would save 670 million gallons of diesel fuel per year and 4.64 million tons of CO2 per year.
TRAINS: Fuel cells are being developed for mining locomotives since they produce no emissions. An international consortium is developing the world's largest fuel cell vehicle, a 109 metric-ton, 1 MW locomotive for military and commercial railway applications.
PLANES: Fuel cells are an attractive option for aviation since they produce zero or low emissions and make barely any noise. The military is especially interested in this application because of the low noise, low thermal signature and ability to attain high altitude. Horizon has developed a fuel cell system able to power small unmanned surveillance aircraft with three times better performance than lithium-ion batteries.
BOATS: For each liter of fuel consumed, the average outboard motor produces
140 times the hydrocarbons produced by the average modern car. Fuel cell engines
have higher energy efficiencies than combustion engines, and therefore offer
better range and significantly reduced emissions. Iceland has committed to
converting its vast fishing fleet to use fuel cells to provide auxiliary power
by 2015 and, eventually, to provide primary power in its boats.
STATIONARY: More than 2500 fuel cell systems have been installed all over the world - in hospitals, nursing homes, hotels, office buildings, schools, utility power plants - either connected to the electric grid to provide supplemental power and backup assurance for critical areas, or installed as a grid-independent generator for on-site service in areas that are inaccessible by power lines. Fuel cell power generation systems in operation today achieve 40 percent fuel-to-electricity efficiency utilizing hydrocarbon fuels. Since fuel cells operate silently, they reduce noise pollution as well as air pollution and when the fuel cell is sited near the point of use, its waste heat can be captured for beneficial purposes (cogeneration). In large-scale building systems, these fuel cell cogeneration systems can reduce facility energy service costs by 20% to 40% over conventional energy service and increase efficiency to 85 percent.
TELECOMMUNICATIONS: With the use of computers, the Internet, and
communication networks steadily increasing, there comes a need for more reliable
power than is available on the current electrical grid, and fuel cells have
proven to be up to 99.999% (five nines) reliable. Fuel cells can replace
batteries to provide power for 1kW to 5kW telecom sites without noise or
emissions, and are durable, providing power in sites that are either hard to
access or are subject to inclement weather. Such systems would be used to
provide primary or backup power for telecom switch nodes, cell towers, and other
electronic systems that would benefit from on-site, direct DC power supply.
LANDFILLS / WASTEWATER TREATMENT: Fuel cells currently operate at landfills and wastewater treatment plants, proving themselves as a valid technology for reducing emissions and generating power from the methane gas they produce. They are also installed at several breweries - Sierra Nevada, Kirin, Asahi and Sapporo. Untreated brewery effluent can undergo anaerobic digestion, which breaks down organic compounds to generate methane, a hydrogen rich fuel